Pathways by which Substances Cross Membranes


    Mediated transport

    Through lipid bilayerThrough protein channelFacilitated diffusionActive transport
    Direction of net fluxHigh conc to lowHigh conc to lowHigh conc to lowLow conc to high
    Use of integral membrane proteinNoYesYesYes
    Chemical specificityNoYesYesYes
    Energy input requiredNoNoNoYes
    Examples of substancesO2, CO2, fatty acidsNa+, K+, Ca2+GlucoseH+, amino acids, glucose, Na+, K+, Ca2+
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